Skip to main content

Health Encyclopedia

Search the Health Encyclopedia

Preventing hepatitis B or C

Description

Hepatitis B and hepatitis C infections cause irritation and swelling of the liver. You should take steps to prevent catching or spreading these viruses since these infections can cause chronic liver disease.

Vaccines

All children should get the hepatitis B vaccine.

  • Babies should get a first dose of the hepatitis B vaccine at birth. They should have all three shots in the series by age 6 to 18 months.
  • Infants born to mothers who have acute hepatitis B or have had the infection in the past should get a special hepatitis B vaccine within 12 hours of birth.
  • Children younger than age 19 who have not had the vaccine should get "catch-up" doses.

Adults at high risk for hepatitis B should also be vaccinated, including:

  • Health care workers and those who live with someone who has hepatitis B
  • People with end-stage kidney disease, chronic liver disease, or HIV infection
  • People with multiple sex partners and men who have sex with other men
  • People who use recreational, injectable drugs

There is no vaccine for hepatitis C.

Lifestyle

Hepatitis B and C viruses are spread through contact with blood or bodily fluids of a person with the virus. The viruses are not spread through casual contact, such as holding hands, sharing eating utensils or drinking glasses, breastfeeding, kissing, hugging, coughing, or sneezing.

To avoid coming in contact with blood or bodily fluids of others:

  • Avoid sharing personal items, such as razors or toothbrushes
  • DO NOT share drug needles or other drug equipment (such as straws for snorting drugs)
  • Clean blood spills with a solution containing 1 part household bleach to 9 parts water
  • Be careful when getting tattoos and body piercings

Safe sex means taking steps before and during sex that can prevent you from getting an infection, or from giving an infection to your partner.

Other steps you can take

Screening of all donated blood has reduced the chance of getting hepatitis B from a blood transfusion. People newly diagnosed with hepatitis B infection should be reported to state health care workers to track the population's exposure to the virus.

The hepatitis B vaccine, or a hepatitis immune globulin (HBIG) shot, may help prevent infection if it is received it within 24 hours of contact with the virus.

References

Kim DK, Bridges CB, Harriman KH; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC); Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP); ACIP Adult Immunization Work Group. Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) Recommended Immunization Schedules for adults aged 19 years and older -- United States, 2015. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). MMWR. 2015:64(4):91-2. PMID: 25654609 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25654609.

LeFevre ML; U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for hepatitis B virus infection in nonpregnant adolescents and adults: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2014 Jul 1;161(1):58-66. PMID 24863637 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24863637.

Pawlotsky J-M. Chronic viral and autoimmune hepatitis. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 149.

Strikas RA, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC); Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP); ACIP Child/Adolescent Immunization Work Group. Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) Recommended Immunization Schedules for Persons Aged 0 through 18 years -- United States, 2015. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). MMWR. 2015:64(4):93-4. PMID: 25654610 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25654610.

Wedemeyer H. Hepatitis C. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger & Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 80.

Wells JT, Perrillo R. Hepatitis B. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger & Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 79.

Review Date:8/14/2015
Reviewed By:Subodh K. Lal, MD, Gastroenterologist with Gastrointestinal Specialists of Georgia, Austell, GA. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997-A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.

adam.com

The Agency for Health Care Administration (Agency) and this website do not claim the information on, or referred to by, this site is error free. This site may include links to websites of other government agencies or private groups. Our Agency and this website do not control such sites and are not responsible for their content. Reference to or links to any other group, product, service, or information does not mean our Agency or this website approves of that group, product, service, or information.

Additionally, while health information provided through this website may be a valuable resource for the public, it is not designed to offer medical advice. Talk with your doctor about medical care questions you may have.

We Appreciate Your Feedback!
1. Did you find this information useful?
         Yes
         No
2. Would you recommend this website to family and friends?
         Yes
         No