Skip to main content

Health Encyclopedia

Search the Health Encyclopedia

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) - children


Acute myeloid leukemia is a cancer of the blood and bone marrow. Bone marrow is the soft tissue inside bones that helps form blood cells. Acute means the cancer develops quickly.

Both adults and children can get acute myeloid leukemia (AML). This article is about AML in children.

Alternative Names

Acute myelogenous leukemia - children; AML - children; Acute granulocytic leukemia - children; Acute myeloblastic leukemia - children; Acute non-lymphocytic leukemia (ANLL) - children


In children, AML is very rare.

AML involves cells in the bone marrow that usually become white blood cells. These leukemia cells build up in the bone marrow and blood, leaving no space for healthy red and white blood cells and platelets to form. Because there are not enough healthy cells to do their jobs, children with AML are more likely to have:

  • Anemia
  • Increased risk for bleeding and bruising
  • Infections

Most of the time, what causes AML is unknown. In children, some things can increase the risk of developing AML:

  • Exposure to alcohol or tobacco smoke before birth
  • A history of certain diseases, such as aplastic anemia
  • Certain genetic disorders, such as Down syndrome
  • Past treatment with some drugs used to treat cancer
  • Past treatment with radiation therapy

Having one or more risk factor does not mean your child will develop cancer. Most children who develop AML have no known risk factors.


Symptoms of AML include:

  • Bone or joint pain
  • Frequent infections
  • Easy bleeding or bruising
  • Feeling weak or tired
  • Fever with or without an infection
  • Night sweats
  • Painless lumps in the neck, armpits, stomach, groin, or other parts of the body that may be blue or purple
  • Pinpoint spots under the skin caused by bleeding
  • Shortness of breath
  • Loss of appetite and eating less food

Exams and Tests

The health care provider will perform the following exams and tests:

  • Physical exam and health history
  • Complete blood count (CBC) and other blood tests
  • Blood chemistry study
  • Chest x-ray
  • Biopsies of the bone marrow, tumor, or lymph node
  • A test to look for changes in the chromosomes in blood or bone marrow

Other tests may be done to determine the specific type of AML.


Treatment for children with AML may include:

The provider may suggest a bone marrow transplant. A transplant is usually not done until the AML is in remission from initial chemotherapy. Remission means no signs of cancer can be found in an exam or with testing. A transplant can improve the chances of a cure and long-term survival for some children.

Your child's treatment team will explain the different options to you. You may want to take notes. Be sure to ask questions if you don't understand something.

Support Groups

Having a child with cancer can make you feel very alone. In a cancer support group, you can find people who are going through the same things you are. They can help you cope with your feelings. They can also help you find help or solutions for problems. Ask your health care team or staff at the cancer center to help you find a support group.

Outlook (Prognosis)

Cancer can come back at any time. But with AML, it is very unlikely to come back after being gone for 5 years.

Possible Complications

The leukemia cells can spread from the blood to other parts of the body, such as:

  • Brain
  • Spinal fluid
  • Skin
  • Gums

The cancer cells can also form a solid tumor in the body.

When to Contact a Medical Professional

Call for an appointment with your provider right away if your child develops any symptoms of AML.

Also, see your provider if your child has AML and a fever or other signs of infection that will not go away.


Many childhood cancers can't be prevented. Most children who develop leukemia have no risk factors.


American Cancer Society website. Childhood leukemia. Updated February 3, 2016. Accessed August 3, 2016.

National Cancer Institute website. Childhood acute myeloid leukemia/other myeloid malignancies treatment (PDQ) - patient version. Updated July 28, 2016. Accessed August 3, 2016.

Wei MC, Dahl GV, Weinstein HJ. Acute myeloid leukemia in children. In: Hoffman R, Benz EJ, Silberstein LE, Heslop HE, Weitz JI, Anastasi J, eds. Hematology: Basic Principles and Practice. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 61.

Review Date:8/1/2016
Reviewed By:Adam S. Levy, MD, Division of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, The Children's Hospital at Montefiore, Bronx, NY. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997-A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.

The Agency for Health Care Administration (Agency) and this website do not claim the information on, or referred to by, this site is error free. This site may include links to websites of other government agencies or private groups. Our Agency and this website do not control such sites and are not responsible for their content. Reference to or links to any other group, product, service, or information does not mean our Agency or this website approves of that group, product, service, or information.

Additionally, while health information provided through this website may be a valuable resource for the public, it is not designed to offer medical advice. Talk with your doctor about medical care questions you may have.

Health Outcome Data

No data available for this condition/procedure.

Health Encyclopedia

More Features

We Appreciate Your Feedback!
1. Did you find this information useful?
2. Would you recommend this website to family and friends?