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Low calcium level - infants

Definition

Calcium is a mineral in the body. It is needed for strong bones and teeth. Calcium also helps the heart, nerves, muscles, and other body systems work well.

A low blood calcium level is called hypocalcemia. This article discusses low blood calcium level in infants.

Alternative Names

Hypocalcemia - infants

Causes

A healthy baby most often has very careful control of blood calcium level.

A low calcium level in the blood is more likely to occur in newborns, more commonly in those who were born too early (preemies). Common causes of hypocalcemia in a newborn include:

  • Certain medications
  • Diabetes in the birth mother
  • Episodes of very low oxygen levels
  • Infection
  • Stress caused by serious illness

There are also some rare illnesses that can lead to low calcium level. These include:

  • DiGeorge syndrome, a genetic disorder
  • The parathyroid glands help control calcium use and removal by the body. Rarely, a child is born with an underactive parathyroid glands.

Symptoms

Babies with hypocalcemia often have no symptoms. Sometimes, babies with low calcium levels are jittery or have tremors or twitching. Rarely, they have seizures.

These babies may also have a slow heart rate and low blood pressure.

Exams and Tests

Diagnosis is most often made when a blood test shows that the infant's calcium level is low.

Treatment

The baby may get extra calcium, if needed.

Outlook (Prognosis)

Problems with low calcium level in newborns or premature infants most often do not continue long-term.

References

Hawdon J, Cheetham T, Schenk DJ, Wraith JE, et al. Metabolic and endocrine disorders. In: Rennie JM, ed. Rennie and Roberton's Textbook of Neonatology. 5th ed. London, UK: Elsevier; 2012:chap 34.

Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St Geme JW III, Schor MF. Electrolyte and acid-base disorders. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St Geme JW III, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 55.

Review Date:11/19/2015
Reviewed By:Neil K. Kaneshiro, MD, MHA, Clinical Assistant Professor of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

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