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Digital rectal exam

Definition

A digital rectal exam is an examination of the lower rectum. The health care provider uses a gloved, lubricated finger to check for any abnormal findings.

Alternative Names

DRE

How the Test is Performed

The provider will first look at the outside of the anus for hemorrhoids or fissures. Then the provider will put on a glove and insert a lubricated finger into the rectum. In women, this exam may be done at the same time as a pelvic exam.

How to Prepare for the Test

For the test, the provider will ask you to:

  • Try to relax
  • Take a deep breath during the insertion of the finger into your rectum

How the Test will Feel

You may feel mild discomfort during this test.

Why the Test is Performed

This test is performed for many reasons. It may be done:

  • As part of a routine yearly physical exam in both men and women
  • When your provider suspects you are bleeding somewhere in your digestive tract
  • When men are having symptoms that suggest the prostate is enlarged or you may have a prostate infection

In men, the test can be used to check the size of the prostate and to look for abnormal bumps or other changes of the prostate gland.

A digital rectal exam may be done to collect stool for testing for fecal occult (hidden) blood as part of screening for cancer of the rectum or colon.

Normal Results

A normal finding means the provider did not detect any problem during the exam. However, this test does not rule out all problems.

What Abnormal Results Mean

An abnormal result may be due to:

References

Abdelnaby A, Downs MJ. Diseases of the anorectum. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger and Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 129.

Loeb S, Carter HB. Early detection, diagnosis, and staging of prostate cancer. In: Wein AJ, ed. Campbell-Walsh Urology. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap 99.

Review Date:11/1/2015
Reviewed By:Linda J. Vorvick, MD, Medical Director and Director of Didactic Curriculum, MEDEX Northwest Division of Physician Assistant Studies, Department of Family Medicine, UW Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

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Outcome Data

No data available for this condition/procedure.

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