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Lumbosacral spine CT

Definition

A lumbosacral spine CT is a computed tomography scan of the lower spine and surrounding tissues.

Alternative Names

Spinal CT; CT - lumbosacral spine

How the Test is Performed

You will be asked to lie on a narrow table that slides into the center of the CT scanner. You will need to lie on your back for this test.

Once inside the scanner, the machine's x-ray beam rotates around you.

Small detectors inside the scanner measure the amount of x-rays that make it through the part of the body being studied. A computer takes this information and uses it to create a number of images, called slices. These images can be stored, viewed on a monitor, or printed on film. Three-dimensional models of organs can be created by stacking the individual slices together.

You must be still during the exam, because movement causes blurred images. You may be told to hold your breath for short periods.

In some cases, an iodine-based dye, called contrast, may be injected into your vein before images are taken. Contrast can highlight specific areas inside the body, which creates a clearer image.

In other cases, a CT of the lumbosacral spine may be done after injecting contrast dye into the spinal canal during a lumbar puncture to further check for pressure on the nerves.

The scan usually lasts a few minutes.

How to Prepare for the Test

You should remove all jewelry or other metal objects before the test. This is because they may cause inaccurate images.

How the Test will Feel

The x-rays are painless. Some people may have discomfort from lying on the hard table.

Contrast may cause a slight burning sensation, a metallic taste in the mouth, and a warm flushing of the body. These sensations are normal and usually go away within a few seconds.

Why the Test is Performed

CT rapidly creates detailed pictures of the body. A CT of the lumbosacral spine can evaluate fractures and changes of the spine, such as those due to arthritis.

What Abnormal Results Mean

CT of the lumbosacral spine may reveal the following conditions or diseases:

Risks

The most common type of contrast given into a vein contains iodine. If a person with an iodine allergy is given this type of contrast, hives, itching, nausea, breathing difficulty, or other symptoms may occur.

If you have kidney problems, diabetes or are on kidney dialysis, talk to your health care provider before the test about your risks.

CT scans and other x-rays are strictly monitored and controlled to make sure they use the least amount of radiation. The risk associated with any individual scan is small. The risk increases when many more scans are performed.

In some cases, a CT scan may still be done if the benefits greatly outweigh the risks. For example, it can be more risky not to have the exam, especially if your health care provider thinks you might have cancer.

Pregnant or breastfeeding women should consult their health care provider about the risk of CT scans to the baby. Radiation during pregnancy can affect the baby, and the dye used with CT scans can enter breast milk.

References

Shaw AS, Prokop M. Computed tomography. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, Gillard JH, Schaefer-Prokop CM, eds. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2014:chap 4.

Thomsen HS. Intravascular contrast media for radiolography, CT, MRI, and ultrasound. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, Gillard JH, Schaefer-Prokop CM, eds. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2014:chap 2.

Review Date:9/8/2014
Reviewed By:C. Benjamin Ma, MD, Assistant Professor, Chief, Sports Medicine and Shoulder Service, UCSF Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, San Francisco, CA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

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