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Smear of duodenal fluid aspirate

Definition

Smear of duodenal fluid aspirate is an exam of fluid from the duodenum to check for signs of an infection (such as giardia or strongyloides). Rarely, this test is also done in a newborn to check for biliary atresia.

Alternative Names

Duodenal aspirated fluid smear

How the Test is Performed

A sample is taken during a procedure called an esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD).

How to Prepare for the Test

Do not eat or drink anything for 12 hours before the test.

How the Test will Feel

You may feel like you have to gag as the tube is passed, but the procedure is most often not painful. You can get medicines to help you relax and be free of pain. If you get anesthesia, you cannot drive for the rest of the day.

Why the Test is Performed

The test is done to look for infection of the small bowel. However, it is not often needed. In most cases, this test is only done when a diagnosis cannot be made with other tests.

Normal Results

There should be no disease-causing organisms in the duodenum. Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Talk to your provider about the meaning of your specific test results.

What Abnormal Results Mean

The results may show the presence of giardia protozoa, the intestinal parasite strongyloides, or another infectious organism.

Risks

The risks of this test include:

  • Bleeding
  • Perforation of (poking a hole in) the gastrointestinal tract by the scope
  • Infection

Some people may not be able to have this test because of other medical conditions.

Considerations

Other tests that are less invasive can often find the source of the infection.

References

Beavis KG, Charnot-Katsikas A. Specimen collection and handling for diagnosis of infectious diseases. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods. 23rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 64.

Dupont HL. Approach to the patient with suspected enteric infection. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine. 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 283.

Fritsche TR, Pritt BS. Medical parasitology. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods. 23rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 63.

Gerding DN, Johnson S. Clostridial infections. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine. 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 296.

Gerding DN, Young VB. Clostridium difficle infection. In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 245.

Haines CF, Sears CL. Infectious enteritis and proctocolitis. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger and Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 110.

Semrad CE. Approach to the patient with diarrhea and malabsorption. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine. 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 140.

Siddiqi HA, Salwen MJ, Shaikh MF, Bowne WB. Laboratory diagnosis of gastrointestinal and pancreatic disorders. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods. 23rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 22.

Review Date:5/11/2016
Reviewed By:Subodh K. Lal, MD, gastroenterologist with Gastrointestinal Specialists of Georgia, Austell, GA. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

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Outcome Data

No data available for this condition/procedure.

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