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CSF analysis

Definition

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis is a group of laboratory tests that measure chemicals in the fluid that surrounds and protects the brain and spinal cord. The tests may look for proteins, sugar (glucose), and other substances.

Alternative Names

Cerebrospinal fluid analysis

How the Test is Performed

A sample of CSF is needed. A lumbar puncture, also called a spinal tap, is the most common way to collect this sample. Less common ways to take a fluid sample include:

After the sample is taken, it is sent to the laboratory for evaluation.

How to Prepare for the Test

Your health care provider will tell you how to prepare for lumbar puncture.

Why the Test is Performed

Analysis of CSF can help detect certain conditions and diseases. All of the following can be, but are not always, measured in a sample of CSF:

Normal Results

Normal results include:

  • Antibodies and DNA of common viruses: None
  • Bacteria: No bacteria grows in a lab culture
  • Cancerous cells: No cancerous cells present
  • Cell count: less than 5 white blood cells (all mononuclear) and 0 red blood cells
  • Chloride: 110 to 125 mEq/L (110 to 125 mmol/L)
  • Fungus: None
  • Glucose: 50 to 80 mg/dL or 2.77 to 4.44 mmol/L (or greater than two-thirds of blood sugar level)
  • Glutamine: 6 to 15 mg/dL (410.5 to 1,026 micromol/L)
  • Lactate dehydrogenase: less than 2.0 to 7.2 U/mL (0.3 to 0.12 microkat/L)
  • Oligoclonal bands: 0 or 1 bands that are not present in a matched serum sample
  • Protein: 15 to 60 mg/dL (0.15 to 0.6 g/L)
  • Opening pressure: 10 to 25 cm of CSF
  • Myelin basic protein: Less than 4ng/mL

Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Talk to your provider about the meaning of your specific test results.

The examples above show the common measurements for results for these tests. Some laboratories use different measurements or may test different specimens.

What Abnormal Results Mean

An abnormal CSF analysis result may be due to many different causes, including:

References

Chernecky CC. CSF analysis, CFS examination. In: Chernecky, CC, Berger BJ, eds. Laboratory Tests and Diagnostic Procedures. 6th ed. St Louis, MO: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:266-432.

Griggs RC, Jozefowicz RF, Aminoff MJ. Approach to the patient with neurologic disease. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 396.

Martorana A, Sancesario GM, Esposito Z, et al. Plasmin system of Alzheimer's disease: CSF analysis. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2012;119(7):763-769. PMID: 22415062 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22415062.

Rosenberg GA. Brain edema and disorders of cerebrospinal fluid circulation. In: Daroff RB, Jankovic J, Mazziotta JC, Pomeroy SL, eds. Bradley's Neurology in Clinical Practice. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 88.

Review Date:5/15/2017
Reviewed By:Amit M. Shelat, DO, FACP, Attending Neurologist and Assistant Professor of Clinical Neurology, SUNY Stony Brook, School of Medicine, Stony Brook, NY. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

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