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Endoscopy

Definition

Endoscopy is a way of looking inside the body using a flexible tube that has a small camera and light on the end of it. This instrument is called an endoscope.

Small instruments can be inserted through an endoscope and used to:

  • Look more closely at an area inside the body
  • Take samples of abnormal tissues
  • Treat certain diseases
  • Remove tumors
  • Stop bleeding
  • Remove foreign bodies (such as food stuck in the esophagus, the tube that connects your throat to your stomach)

How the Test is Performed

An endoscope is passed through a natural body opening or small cut. There are many types of endoscopes. Each one is named according to the organs or areas they are used to examine.

Endoscopy is often used to examine and treat parts of the digestive tract, such as:

  • Anoscopy views the inside of the anus, the very lowest part of the colon.
  • Colonoscopy views the inside of the colon (large intestine) and rectum.
  • Enteroscopy views the small intestine (small bowel).
  • ERCP (endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography) views the biliary tract, small tubes that drain the gallbladder, liver, and pancreas.
  • Sigmoidoscopy views the inside the sigmoid colon and rectum.
  • Upper endoscopy (or EGD) views the lining of the esophagus, stomach, and first part of the small intestine.
  • Bronchoscopy is used to look in the airways and lungs.
  • Cystoscopy is used to view the inside of the bladder. The scope is passed through the opening of the urethra.
  • Laparoscopy is used to look directly at the ovaries, appendix, or other abdominal organs. The scope is inserted through small surgical cuts in the pelvic or belly area. Tumors or organs in the abdomen or pelvis can be removed.
  • Arthroscopy is used to look directly in the joints. The scope is inserted through small surgical cuts around the joint. Problems with bones, tendons, ligaments can be treated.

How to Prepare for the Test

Preparation for the procedure varies depending on the test. For example, there is no preparation needed for anoscopy. But a special diet and laxatives are needed to prepare for a colonoscopy. Follow your health care provider's instructions.

How the Test will Feel

All of these tests may cause discomfort or pain. Some are done after sedatives and pain medicines are given. Check with your provider about what to expect.

References

Duffey B, Monga M. Principles of endoscopy. In: Wein AJ, Kavoussi LR, Novick AC, et al, eds. Campbell-Walsh Urology. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap 8.

Lentz GM. Endoscopy: hysteroscopy and laparoscopy. In: Lentz GM, Lobo RA, Gershenson DM, Katz VL, eds. Comprehensive Gynecology. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2012:chap 10.

Phillips BB. General principles of arthroscopy. In: Canale ST, Beaty JH, eds. Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics. 12th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2013:chap 49.

Wilcox CM. Atlas of Clinical Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2012.

Yung RC, Flint PW. Tracheobronchial endoscopy. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund V, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2015:chap 72.

Review Date:4/30/2015
Reviewed By:Laura J. Martin, MD, MPH, ABIM Board Certified in Internal Medicine and Hospice and Palliative Medicine, Atlanta, GA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

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Health
Outcome Data

Outpatient number of visits and charges for Endoscopy of the Lower Airway


Outpatient number of visits and charges for Endoscopy of the Upper Airway, Level I


Outpatient number of visits and charges for Endoscopy of the Upper Airway, Level II


Outpatient number of visits and charges for Lower Gastrointestinal (GI) Endoscopy, Diagnostic


Outpatient number of visits and charges for Upper Gastrointestinal (GI) Endoscopy or Intubation, Diagnostic


Outpatient number of visits and charges for Upper Gastrointestinal (GI) Endoscopy or Intubation, Therapeutic


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