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Cyst

Definition

A cyst is a closed pocket or pouch of tissue. It can be filled with air, fluid, pus, or other material.

Considerations

Cysts may form within any tissue in the body. Most cysts in the lungs are filled with air. Cysts that form in the lymph system or kidneys are fluid-filled. Certain parasites, such as some types of roundworms and tapeworms, can form cysts within the muscles, liver, brain, lungs, and eyes.

Cysts are common on the skin. They can develop when acne causes a sebaceous gland to clog, or they can form around something that is stuck in the skin. These cysts are not cancer (benign) but can cause pain and changes in appearance. At times, they can become infected and need treatment due to pain and swelling.

Cysts can be drained or removed with surgery, depending on their type and location.

Sometimes, a cyst looks like a skin cancer and may need to be removed to be tested.

A pilonidal dimple is a type of skin cyst.

References

King CH, Fairley JK. Tapeworms (cestodes). In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, Updated Edition. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 291.

Patterson JW. Cysts, sinuses, and pits. In: Patterson JW, ed. Weedon's Skin Pathology. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2016:chap 16.

Poulose BK, Holzman MD. The spleen. In: Townsend CM, Beauchamp RD, Evers BM, Mattox KL, eds. Sabiston Textbook of Surgery. 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 56.

Review Date:10/31/2016
Reviewed By:Kevin Berman, MD, PhD, Atlanta Center for Dermatologic Disease, Atlanta, GA. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

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