Antifreeze is a liquid used to cool engines. It is also called engine coolant. This article discusses poisoning caused by swallowing antifreeze.
This article is for information only. DO NOT use it to treat or manage an actual poisoning. If you or someone you are with has swallowed poison, call your local emergency number (such as 911) or the National Poison Control Center at 1-800-222-1222.
Engine coolant poisoning
The poisonous ingredients in antifreeze are:
- Ethylene glycol
- Propylene glycol
The above ingredients are found in various antifreezes. They may also be used in other products.
Below are symptoms of antifreeze poisoning in different parts of the body.
Airways and lungs
Bladder and kidneys
Eyes, ears, nose, and throat
Heart and blood
Muscles and joints:Leg cramps
Skin:Blue lips and fingernails
Stomach and gastrointestinal tract
Seek medical help right away. DO NOT make a person throw up unless poison control or a health care provider tells you to.
Use standard first aid and CPR for signs of shock or no heartbeat (cardiac arrest). Call your local poison control center or 911 for more help.
Before Calling Emergency
Have this information ready:
- Person's age, weight, and condition
- Name of product (as well as the ingredients, if known)
- Time it was swallowed
- Amount swallowed
The National Poison Control Center (1-800-222-1222) can be called from anywhere in the United States. This national hotline number will let you talk to experts in poisoning. They will give you further instructions.
This is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this national number. You should call if you have any questions about poisoning or poison prevention. It does NOT need to be an emergency. You can call for any reason, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.
What to Expect at the Emergency Room
Take the container with you to the hospital, if possible.
The health care provider will measure and monitor the person's vital signs, including temperature, pulse, breathing rate, and blood pressure. The person may receive:
- Blood and urine tests
- Breathing support, including oxygen, tube through the mouth into the throat, and breathing machine
- Chest x-ray
- CT scan (advanced brain imaging)
- EKG (electrocardiogram or heart tracing)
- Intravenous fluids (through a vein)
- Medicines to reverse the effects of the poison
- Tube placed down the nose and into the stomach (sometimes)
Dialysis (kidney machine) treatment may be needed during recovery. Sometimes the person will need it for the rest of their life.
For ethylene glycol: Death may occur within the first 24 hours. If the patient survives, there may be little or no urine output for several weeks before the kidneys recover. Any brain damage may be permanent. Vision loss or blindness may also be permanent.
For methanol: Methanol is extremely toxic. As little as 2 tablespoons (1 ounce) can kill a child, and 4 to 16 tablespoons (2 to 8 ounces) can be deadly for an adult. The outcome depends on how much was swallowed and how soon appropriate care was given.
Permanent damage to the nervous system may occur. This can cause blindness, decreased mental functioning, and a condition similar to Parkinson disease.
Thomas SHL, White J. Poisoning. In: Walker BR, Colledge NR, Ralston SH, Penman ID, eds. Davidson's Principles and Practice of Medicine. 22nd ed. Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2014:chap 9.
White SR. Toxic alcohols. In: Marx JA, ed. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 155.
Reviewed By:Jacob L. Heller, MD, MHA, Emergency Medicine, Virginia Mason Medical Center, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.
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