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Laxative overdose

Definition

A laxative is a medicine used to produce bowel movements. Laxative overdose occurs when someone takes more than the normal or recommended amount of this medicine. This can be by accident or on purpose.

Most laxative overdoses in children are accidental. However, some people regularly take overdoses of laxatives to try to lose weight.

This article is for information only. Do NOT use it to treat or manage an actual overdose. If you or someone you are with overdoses, call your local emergency number (such as 911) or the National Poison Control Center at 1-800-222-1222.

Alternative Names

Laxative abuse

Poisonous Ingredient

Using too much of these drugs can cause symptoms of a laxative overdose:

  • Bisacodyl
  • Carboxymethylcellulose
  • Cascara sagrada
  • Casanthranol
  • Castor oil
  • Dehydrocholic acid
  • Docusate
  • Glycerin
  • Lactulose
  • Magnesium citrate
  • Magnesium hydroxide
  • Magnesium oxide
  • Magnesium sulfate
  • Malt soup extract
  • Methylcellulose
  • Milk of magnesia
  • Mineral oil
  • Phenolphthalein
  • Poloxamer 188
  • Polycarbophil
  • Potassium bitartrate and sodium bicarbonate
  • Psyllium
  • Psyllium hydrophilic mucilloid
  • Senna
  • Sennosides
  • Sodium phosphate

Other laxative products may also cause an overdose.

Where Found

Below are specific laxative drugs, with some brand names:

  • Bisacodyl (Dulcolax)
  • Cascara sagrada
  • Castor oil
  • Docusate (Colace)
  • Docusate and phenolphthalein (Correctol)
  • Glycerin suppositories
  • Lactulose (Duphalac)
  • Magnesium citrate
  • Malt soup extract (Maltsupex)
  • Methylcellulose
  • Milk of magnesia
  • Mineral oil
  • Phenolphthalein (Ex-Lax)
  • Psyllium
  • Senna

Other laxatives may also be available.

Symptoms

Nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramping, and diarrhea are the most common symptoms of a laxative overdose. Dehydration and electrolyte (body chemicals and minerals) imbalance are more common in children than adults. Below are symptoms specific to the actual product.

Bisacodyl:

  • Cramps
  • Diarrhea

Senna; Cascara sagrada:

  • Abdominal pain
  • Bloody stools
  • Collapse
  • Diarrhea

Phenolphthalein:

  • Abdominal pain
  • Collapse
  • Diarrhea
  • Dizziness
  • Drop in blood pressure
  • Low blood sugar
  • Rash

Sodium phosphate:

  • Abdominal pain
  • Collapse
  • Diarrhea
  • Muscle weakness
  • Vomiting

Magnesium-containing products:

  • Abdominal pain
  • Collapse
  • Coma
  • Death
  • Diarrhea (watery)
  • Drop in blood pressure
  • Flushing
  • Gastrointestinal irritation
  • Muscle weakness
  • Painful bowel movements
  • Painful urination
  • Slowed breathing
  • Thirst
  • Vomiting

Castor oil can cause gastrointestinal irritation.

Mineral oil can cause aspiration pneumonia, a condition where vomited stomach contents are inhaled into the lungs.

Products containing methylcellulose, carboxymethylcellulose, polycarbophil, or psyllium may cause choking or intestinal blockage if they are not taken with plenty of fluids.

Home Care

Seek medical help right away. Do NOT make a person throw up unless poison control or a health care provider tells you to.

Before Calling Emergency

Have this information ready:

  • Person's age, weight, and condition
  • The name of the product (ingredients and strength, if known)
  • Time it was swallowed
  • The amount swallowed
  • If the medicine was prescribed for the person

Poison Control

The National Poison Control Center (1-800-222-1222) can be called from anywhere in the United States. This national hotline number will let you talk to experts in poisoning. They will give you further instructions.

This is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this national number. You should call if you have any questions about poisoning or poison prevention. It does not need to be an emergency. You can call for any reason, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.

What to Expect at the Emergency Room

Take the container with you to the hospital, if possible.

The provider will measure and monitor the person's vital signs, including temperature, pulse, breathing rate, heart function, and blood pressure. Symptoms will be treated. The person may receive:

  • Activated charcoal
  • Blood and urine tests
  • Breathing support, including oxygen and (very rarely) a tube through the mouth into the lungs
  • Chest x-ray
  • EKG (electrocardiogram, or heart tracing)
  • Intravenous fluids (through a vein)
  • Tube through the mouth into the stomach to empty the stomach (gastric lavage)

Outlook (Prognosis)

How well a person does depends on the type of laxative swallowed, how much was swallowed, and how much time passed before treatment was received.

First-time laxative overdoses are rarely serious. Severe symptoms are most likely in people who abuse laxatives by taking large amounts to lose weight. Fluid and electrolyte imbalances may occur. Inability to control bowel movements may also develop.

Laxatives containing magnesium can cause serious electrolyte and heart rhythm disturbances in people with impaired kidney function. These people may require the extra breathing support noted above.

References

Malagelada JR, Malagelada C. Nausea and vomiting. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger & Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2006:chap 8.

Pfennig CL, Slovis CM. Electrolyte disorders. In: Marx, JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 125.

Schwaab JL, Bravender T, Rund DA. Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. In: Tintinalli JE, Stapczynski JS, Ma OJ, Cline DM, Cydulka RK, Meckler GD, eds. Tintinalli's Emergency Medicine: A Comprehensive Study Guide. 7th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2011:chap 286.

Tanofsky-Kraff M. Eating disorders. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine. 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 219.

White SR, Hedge MW. Gastrointestinal toxicology. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 13.

Yu ASL. Disorders of magnesium and phosphorous. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine. 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 119.

Review Date:7/6/2015
Reviewed By:Jacob L. Heller, MD, MHA, Emergency Medicine, Virginia Mason Medical Center, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997-A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.

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