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Impetigo

Definition

Impetigo is a common skin infection.

Causes

Impetigo is caused by streptococcus (strep) or staphylococcus (staph) bacteria. Methicillin-resistant staph aureus (MRSA) is becoming a common cause.

Skin normally has many types of bacteria on it. When there is a break in the skin, bacteria can enter the body and grow there. This causes inflammation and infection. Breaks in the skin may occur from injury or trauma to the skin or from insect, animal, or human bites.

Impetigo may also occur on skin where there is no visible break.

Impetigo is most common in children who live in unhealthy conditions.

In adults, it may occur following another skin problem. It may also develop after a cold or other virus.

Impetigo can spread to others. You can catch the infection from someone who has it if the fluid that oozes from their skin blisters touches an open area on your skin.

Symptoms

Symptoms of impetigo are:

  • One or many blisters that are filled with pus and easy to pop. In infants, the skin is reddish or raw-looking where a blister has broken.
  • Blisters that itch, are filled with yellow or honey-colored fluid, and ooze and crust over
  • Rash that may begin as a single spot, but spreads to other areas with scratching
  • Skin sores on the face, lips, arms, or legs that spread to other areas
  • Swollen lymph nodes near the infection
  • Patches of impetigo on the body (in children)

Exams and Tests

Your health care provider will look at your skin to determine if you have impetigo.

Your provider may take a sample of bacteria from your skin to grow in the lab.This can help determine if MRSA is the cause. Specific antibiotics are needed to treat this type of bacteria.

Treatment

The goal of treatment is to get rid of the infection and relieve your symptoms.

Your health care provider will prescribe an antibacterial cream. You may need to take antibiotics by mouth if the infection is severe.

Gently wash (do not scrub) your skin several times a day with an antibacterial soap to remove crusts and drainage.

Outlook (Prognosis)

The sores of impetigo heal slowly. Scars are rare. The cure rate is very high, but the problem often comes back in young children.

Possible Complications

Impetigo may lead to:

  • Spread of the infection to other parts of the body (common)
  • Kidney failure (rare)
  • Permanent skin damage and scarring (very rare)

When to Contact a Medical Professional

Call your health care provider if you have symptoms of impetigo.

Prevention

Prevent the spread of infection.

  • If you have impetigo, always use a clean washcloth and towel each time you wash.
  • Do not share towels, clothing, razors, and other personal care products with anyone.
  • Avoid touching blisters that are oozing.
  • Wash your hands thoroughly after touching infected skin.

Keep your skin clean to prevent getting the infection. Wash minor cuts and scrapes well with soap and clean water. You can use a mild antibacterial soap.

References

Habif TP. Bacterial infections. In: Habif TP, ed. Clinical Dermatology. 5th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby; 2009:chap 9.

Impetigo. Alvero R, Ferri FF, Fort GG, et al, eds. In: Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2015. 1st ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2014:section I.

Morelli JG. Cutaneous Bacterial Infections. In: Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, Stanton BF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 19th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 657.

Pasternack MS, Swartz MN. Cellulitis, necrotizing fasciitis, and subcutaneous tissue infections. In: Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R, eds. Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2009:chap 90.

Review Date:11/12/2014
Reviewed By:Richard J. Moskowitz, MD, dermatologist in private practice, Mineola, NY. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997-A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.

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