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Chronic motor tic disorder

Definition

Chronic motor tic disorder is a condition that involves quick, uncontrollable movements or vocal outbursts (but not both).

Alternative Names

Chronic vocal tic disorder; Tic - chronic motor tic disorder

Causes

Chronic motor tic disorder is more common than Tourette syndrome. Chronic tics may be forms of Tourette syndrome. Tics usually start at age 5 or 6 and get worse until age 12. They often improve during adulthood.

Symptoms

A tic is a sudden, fast, repeated movement or sound that has no reason or goal. Tics can involve:

  • Excessive blinking
  • Grimaces of the face
  • Quick movements of the arms, legs, or other areas
  • Sounds (grunts, throat clearing, contractions of the abdomen or diaphragm)

Some persons have many kinds of tics.

A person with the condition can hold off these symptoms for a short time. But they feel relief when they carry out these movements. They often describe the tics as a response to an inner urge. Some say they have abnormal sensations in the area of the tic before it occurs.

Tics may continue during all stages of sleep. They may get worse with:

  • Excitement
  • Fatigue
  • Heat
  • Stress

Exams and Tests

The doctor can usually diagnose a tic during a physical examination. Tests are generally not needed.

To be diagnosed with the disorder:

  • You must have had the tics nearly every day for more than a year
  • You have not had a tic-free period longer than 3 months

Treatment

Treatment depends on how severe the tics are and how the condition affects you. Medicines and talk therapy (psychotherapy) are used when the tics greatly affect daily activities, such as school and job performance.

Medicines can help control or reduce tics. But they have side effects, such as movement and thinking problems.

Outlook (Prognosis)

Children who develop this disorder between ages 6 and 8 usually do very well. Symptoms may last 4 to 6 years, and then stop in the early teens without treatment.

When the disorder begins in older children and continues into the 20s, it may become a life-long condition.

Possible Complications

There are usually no complications.

When to Contact a Medical Professional

There is usually no need to see the health care provider for a tic unless it is severe or disrupts your life.

If you cannot tell whether your movements are a tic or something more serious (such as a seizure), call your health care provider.

References

Jankovic J, Lang AE. Movement disorders. In: Daroff RB, Fenichel GM, Jankovic J, Mazziotta JC. Bradley's Neurology in Clinical Practice. 6th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap 21.

Ryan CA, Gosselin GJ, DeMaso DR. Habit and tic disorders. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme JW III, et al., eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 19th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 22.

Review Date:2/20/2014
Reviewed By:Joseph V. Campellone, M.D., Division of Neurology, Cooper University Hospital, Camden, NJ. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

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