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Factor II deficiency

Definition

Factor II (two) deficiency is a disorder caused by a lack of a protein called factor II in the blood. It leads to problems with blood clotting (coagulation). Factor II is also known as prothrombin.

Alternative Names

Hypoprothrombinemia; Prothrombin deficiency

Causes

When you bleed, a series of reactions take place in the body that helps blood clots form. This process is called the coagulation cascade. It involves special proteins called coagulation, or clotting, factors. You may have a higher chance of excess bleeding if one or more of these factors are missing or are not functioning like they should.

Factor II is one such coagulation factor. Factor II deficiency runs in families (inherited) and is very rare. Both parents must have the gene to pass the disorder on to their children. A family history of a bleeding disorder can be a risk factor.

Factor II deficiency can also be due to another condition or use of certain medicines. This is called acquired factor II deficiency. It can be caused by:

  • Lack of vitamin K (some babies are born with vitamin K deficiency)
  • Severe liver disease
  • Use of medicines that prevent clotting (anticoagulants such as warfarin)

Symptoms

Symptoms may include any of the following:

  • Abnormal bleeding after childbirth
  • Heavy menstrual bleeding
  • Bleeding after surgery
  • Bleeding after trauma
  • Bruising easily
  • Nosebleeds that do not stop easily
  • Umbilical cord bleeding after birth

Exams and Tests

Tests that may be done include:

Treatment

Bleeding can be controlled by getting intravenous (IV) infusions of plasma or concentrates of clotting factors. If you lack vitamin K, you can take this vitamin by mouth, through injections under the skin, or through a vein (intravenously).

If you have this bleeding disorder, be sure to:

  • Tell your health care providers before you have any kind of procedure, including surgery and dental work.
  • Tell your family members because they may have the same disorder but do not know it yet.

Support Groups

Find out more about bleeding disorders through these groups:

American Society of Hematology -- www.hematology.org/Patients/Blood-Disorders.aspx

National Hemophilia Foundation: Other Factor Deficiencies -- www.hemophilia.org/Bleeding-Disorders/Types-of-Bleeding-Disorders/Other-Factor-Deficiencies

Victory for Women with Blood Disorders -- www.hemophilia.org/Community-Resources/Women-with-Bleeding-Disorders/Victory-for-Women-with-Blood-Disorders

Outlook (Prognosis)

The outcome is good with proper treatment.

Inherited factor II deficiency is a lifelong condition.

The outlook for acquired factor II deficiency depends on the cause. If it is caused by liver disease, the outcome depends on how well your liver disease can be treated. Taking vitamin K supplements will treat vitamin K deficiency.

Possible Complications

Severe bleeding in the organs can occur.

When to Contact a Medical Professional

Get emergency treatment right away if you have unexplained or long-term blood loss, or if you cannot control the bleeding.

Prevention

There is no known prevention for inherited factor II deficiency. When a lack of vitamin K is the cause, using vitamin K can help.

References

Gailani D, Neff AT. Rare coagulation factor deficiencies. In: Hoffman R, Benz EJ Jr, Silberstein LE, Heslop HE, Weitz JI, Anastasi JI, eds. Hematology: Basic Principles and Practice. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap 139.

Ragni MV. Hemorrhagic disorders: coagulation factor deficiencies. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap 177.

Review Date:1/22/2015
Reviewed By:Rita Nanda, MD, Assistant Professor of Medicine, Section of Hematology/Oncology, University of Chicago Medicine, Chicago, IL. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997-A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.

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Outcome Data

No data available for this condition/procedure.

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