Hyperviscosity - newborn
Hyperviscosity of the newborn is the slowing and blockage of blood flow. It occurs when there are too many red blood cells in an infant's blood.
Causes, incidence, and risk factors
Hyperviscosity can occur when the percentage of red blood cells (RBCs) in the infant's blood called the "hematocrit," is greater than 65%. The problem can occur as a result of conditions that develop before birth. These may include:
- Birth defects
- Delay in clamping the umbilical cord
- Diabetes in the baby's birth mother
- Inherited diseases
- Not enough oxygen reaching body tissues (hypoxia)
- Twin-twin transfusion syndrome (occurs when blood moves from one twin to the other)
The extra RBCs can block the flow of blood in the smallest blood vessels. This may lead to tissue death from lack of oxygen. This blocked blood flow can affect all organs, including the kidneys, lungs, and brain.
Symptoms may include:
- Extreme sleepiness
- Feeding problems
- Red skin color
Signs and tests
There may be signs of breathing problems, kidney failure, and newborn jaundice.
If the baby has symptoms of hyperviscosity, a blood test to count the number of red blood cells will be done. This test is called a hematocrit.
Other tests may include:
- Blood gases to check oxygen level in the blood
- Blood sugar (glucose) to check for low blood sugar
- Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), a substance that forms when protein breaks down
The baby will be monitored for complications of hyperviscosity. An exchange transfusion may be needed. This is done to lower the amount of red blood cells that are moving through the baby's blood vessels.
Other treatment may include increasing body fluids.
The outlook is good for infants with mild hyperviscosity. Good results are also possible in infants who receive treatment for severe hyperviscosity.
Some children may have mild developmental changes. Parents should contact their health care provider if they think their child shows signs of delayed development.
Complications may include:
- Death of intestinal tissue (necrotizing enterocolitis)
- Decreased fine motor control
- Kidney failure
Maheshwari A, Carlo WA. Blood disorders. In: Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, Stanton BF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 19th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 97.
Reviewed By:Sameer Patel, MD, Assistant Professor of Pediatrics, Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Bethanne Black, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.
The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency
or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional
should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911
for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they
do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997-A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.
The Agency for Health Care Administration (Agency) and this website do not claim the information on, or referred to by, this site is error free. This site may include links to websites of other government agencies or private groups. Our Agency and this website do not control such sites and are not responsible for their content. Reference to or links to any other group, product, service, or information does not mean our Agency or this website approves of that group, product, service, or information.
Additionally, while health information provided through this website may be a valuable resource for the public, it is not designed to offer medical advice. Talk with your doctor about medical care questions you may have.