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Hyperaldosteronism - primary and secondary

Definition

Hyperaldosteronism is a disorder in which the adrenal gland releases too much of the hormone aldosterone into the blood.

Hyperaldosteronism can be primary or secondary.

Alternative Names

Conn syndrome; Mineralocorticoid excess

Causes

Primary hyperaldosteronism is due to a problem of the adrenal glands themselves, which causes them to release too much aldosterone.

In contrast, with secondary hyperaldosteronism, a problem elsewhere in the body causes the adrenal glands to release too much aldosterone. These problems can be with genes, diet, or a medical disorder such as with the heart, liver, kidneys, or high blood pressure.

Most cases of primary hyperaldosteronism are caused by a noncancerous (benign) tumor of the adrenal gland. The condition is most common in people 30 to 50 years old.

Symptoms

Primary and secondary hyperaldosteronism have common symptoms, including:

Exams and Tests

Tests that may be ordered to diagnose hyperaldosteronism include:

A procedure to insert a catheter into the veins of the adrenal glands may need to be done. This helps check which of the two adrenal glands is making too much aldosterone.

Treatment

Primary hyperaldosteronism caused by an adrenal gland tumor is usually treated with surgery. It can sometimes be treated with medicines. Removing the adrenal tumor may control the symptoms. Even after surgery, some people still have high blood pressure and need to take medicine. But often, the number of medicines or doses can be lowered.

Limiting salt intake and taking medicine may control the symptoms without surgery. Medicines to treat hyperaldosteronism include:

  • Drugs that block the action of aldosterone
  • Diuretics (water pills), which help manage fluid buildup in the body

Secondary hyperaldosteronism is treated with medicines (as described above) and limiting salt intake. Surgery is not used.

Outlook (Prognosis)

The outlook for primary hyperaldosteronism is good with early diagnosis and treatment.

The outlook for secondary hyperaldosteronism depends on the cause of the condition.

Possible Complications

Primary hyperaldosteronism can cause very high blood pressure, which can damage many organs, including the eyes, kidneys, heart and brain.

Impotence and gynecomastia (enlarged breasts in men) may occur with long-term use of medicines. But this is uncommon.

When to Contact a Medical Professional

Call for an appointment with your health care provider if you develop symptoms of hyperaldosteronism.

References

Carey RM, Padia SH. Primary mineralocorticoid excess disorders and hypertension. In: Jameson JL, De Groot LJ, de Kretser DM, et al, eds. Endocrinology: Adult and Pediatric. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 108.

Nieman LK. Adrenal cortex. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine. 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 227.

Review Date:7/24/2015
Reviewed By:Brent Wisse, MD, Associate Professor of Medicine, Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology & Nutrition, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

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