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Toxic megacolon

Definition

Toxic megacolon occurs when swelling and inflammation spread into the deeper layers of your colon. As a result, the colon stops working and widens. In severe cases, the colon may rupture.

Alternative Names

Toxic dilation of the colon; Megarectum; Inflammatory bowel disease - toxic megacolon; Crohn disease - toxic megacolon; Ulcerative colitis - toxic megacolon

Causes

The term "toxic" means that this problem is very dangerous. Toxic megacolon may occur in people with an inflamed colon due to:

Other forms of megacolon include pseudo-obstruction, acute colonic ileus, or congenital colonic dilation. These conditions do not involve an infected or inflamed colon.

Symptoms

The rapid widening of the colon may cause the following symptoms to occur over a short period of time:

Exams and Tests

The health care provider will perform a physical exam. Findings may include:

The exam may reveal signs of septic shock, such as:

  • Increased heart rate
  • Mental status changes
  • Rapid heart rate
  • Low blood pressure

The provider may order any of the following tests:

Treatment

Treatment of the disorder that led to toxic megacolon includes:

  • Steroids and other medicines that suppress the immune system
  • Antibiotics

If you have septic shock, you will be admitted to the intensive care unit of the hospital. Treatment may include:

  • Breathing machine (mechanical ventilation)
  • Dialysis for kidney failure
  • Drugs to treat low blood pressure, infection, or poor blood clotting
  • Fluids given directly into a vein
  • Oxygen

If rapid widening is not treated, an opening or rupture can form in the colon. Therefore, most cases of toxic megacolon will need surgery to remove a part of or the entire colon.

You may receive antibiotics to prevent sepsis (a severe infection).

Outlook (Prognosis)

If the condition does not improve, it can be fatal. Colon surgery is usually needed in such cases.

Possible Complications

Complications may include:

  • Perforation of the colon
  • Sepsis
  • Shock
  • Death

When to Contact a Medical Professional

Go to the emergency room or call the local emergency number (such as 911) if you develop severe abdominal pain, especially if you also have:

  • Bloody diarrhea
  • Fever
  • Frequent diarrhea
  • Rapid heart rate
  • Tenderness when the abdomen is pressed
  • Abdominal distention

Prevention

Treating diseases that cause toxic megacolon, such as ulcerative colitis or Crohn disease, can prevent this condition.

References

Althumairi AA, Efron JE. The management of toxic megacolon. In: Cameron JL, Cameron AM, eds. Current Surgical Therapy. 12th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:161-164.

Lichtenstein GR. Inflammatory bowel disease. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 141.

Peterson MA, Wu AW. Disorders of the large intestine. In: Walls RM, Hockberger RS, Gausche-Hill M, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 85.

Rougas S. Toxic megacolon. In: Ferri FF, ed. Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2018. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:1283-1284.

Review Date:10/22/2017
Reviewed By:Michael M. Phillips, MD, Clinical Professor of Medicine, The George Washington University School of Medicine, Washington, DC. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

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Health Outcome Data

No data available for this condition/procedure.

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