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Marine animal stings or bites

Definition

Marine animal stings or bites refer to venomous or poisonous bites or stings from any form of sea life, including jellyfish.

There are about 2,000 species of animals found in the ocean that are either venomous or poisonous to humans. Many can cause serious illness or death.

The number of injuries caused by these animals has gone up in recent years because more people are taking part in scuba diving, snorkeling, surfing, and other water sports. These animals are most often not aggressive. Many are anchored to the ocean floor. Venomous marine animals in the United States are most often found along the California, Gulf of Mexico, and southern Atlantic coasts.

Alternative Names

Stings - marine animals; Bites - marine animals

Considerations

Most bites or stings of this type occur in salt water. Some types of marine stings or bites can be deadly.

Causes

Causes include bites or stings from various types of marine life, including: jellyfish, Portuguese man-of-war, stingray, stonefish, scorpion fish, catfish, sea urchins, sea anemone, hydroid, coral, cone shell, sharks, barracudas, and moray or electric eels.

Symptoms

There may be pain, burning, swelling, redness, or bleeding near the area of the bite or sting. Other symptoms can affect the entire body, and may include:

First Aid

Follow these steps to provide first aid:

  • Wear gloves, if possible, when removing stingers.
  • Brush off tentacles and stingers with a credit card or similar object if possible.
  • If you do not have a card, you can gently wipe off stingers or tentacles with a towel. Do not rub the area roughly.
  • Wash the area with salt water.
  • Soak the wound in hot water no hotter than 113°F (45°C) for 30 to 90 minutes, if told to do so by trained personnel. Always test water temperature before applying it to a child.
  • Box jellyfish stings should be immediately rinsed with vinegar.
  • Fish stings and stings Portuguese man-of-war should be immediately rinsed with hot water.

Do Not

Follow these cautions:

  • Do NOT attempt to remove stingers without protecting your own hands.
  • Do NOT raise the affected body part above the level of the heart.
  • Do NOT allow the person to exercise.
  • Do NOT give any medicine, unless told to do so by a health care provider.

When to Contact a Medical Professional

Seek medical help (call 911 or your local emergency number) if the person has difficulty breathing, chest pain, nausea, vomiting, or uncontrolled bleeding; if the sting site develops swelling or discoloration, or for other bodywide (generalized) symptoms.

Prevention

Things you can do to prevent a marine animal sting or bite include:

  • Swim near a lifeguard.
  • Observe posted signs that may warn of danger from jellyfish or other hazardous marine life.
  • Do not touch unfamiliar marine life. Even dead animals or severed tentacles may contain poisonous venom.

References

Auerbach PS. Envenomation by aquatic vertebrates. In: Auerbach PS, ed. Wilderness Medicine. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap 80.

Auerbach PS. Envenomation by aquatic invertebrates. In: Auerbach PS, ed. Wilderness Medicine. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap 81.

Otten EJ. Venomous animal injuries. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 62.

Review Date:11/4/2015
Reviewed By:Jesse Borke, MD, FACEP, FAAEM, Attending Physician at FDR Medical Services/Millard Fillmore Suburban Hospital, Buffalo, NY. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

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